New Wine in Old Bottles: Explaining Party Competition Along the Socio-Cultural Dimension in Europe. (with Jan Rovny) [PDF]
In Europe, non-economic political issues are seen as secondary, but significant, sources of political competition. There is uncertainty, however, about the sources of its varying significance in politics. This paper addresses the extent to which this ‘other’ dimension frames political conflict across western Europe. Using expert surveys and country-level data, we first explore the contemporary content of the non-economic dimension. We find evidence of variance in the importance of this dimension in different party systems, which we explain through the role of historical religious conflict. Despite the rise of new cultural issues, historical religious divides provide strikingly powerful predictors of the significance of the socio-cultural dimension in contemporary political competition of western Europe.
Worlds of Welfare and Multidimensional Party Competition in Europe. (with Jan Rovny) Forthcoming in Electoral Realignments and Welfare State Transformations in Europe. eds. Hanna Schwander, Philip Manow and Bruno Palier, Oxford University Press. [PDF]
This paper explains the relationship between the four European worlds of welfare/political economy (Scandinavian, Continental, Southern, and Liberal) and multidimensional party competition. We examine if a country’s political economy systematically affects the relationship between party positions on economic and cultural politics. Our expectation is that Southern political economies facilitate increased cultural competition, whereas Nordic welfare states produce party systems defined by economic politics. The Continental welfare states stand between the two extremes. We test our argument with the most recent (2014) waves of data from the Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES) and the European Elections Studies (EES). Our analysis suggests different political opportunity structures, and consequently different behavior of populist challenger parties of Western Europe. Here, the North/South divisions again correlate with the flavors of populism.
Multidimensional Congruence and European Parliament Vote Switching. (with Ryan Bakker and Seth Jolly) [PDF]
Does ideological incongruence hurt parties in elections? Research on the representa- tional relationship between parties and voters suggests that ideological congruence can boost a party’s electoral prospects. However, while the mechanism is at the individual- level, most of the literature focuses on the party-level. In this paper, we shift the focus to individuals, develop a set of hypotheses based on a multidimensional conception of party-voter congruence, and examine the electoral consequences of these varying congruence levels in the 2014 EP elections. Consistent with our expectations, we find that ideological incongruence is a significant factor in voting behavior in the European Parliament elections.
Using survey vignettes and scaling techniques, we estimate a common social left/right dimension for political parties across the member states of the European Union. Pre- vious research shows that economic left/right travels well across the EU, meaning that the placements of parties on that dimension are cross-nationally comparable; how- ever, the social dimension is more complex, with different issues forming the core of the social dimension in different countries. The 2014 wave of the Chapel Hill Expert Survey includes anchoring vignettes which we use as “bridge votes” to place parties from different countries on a common social left/right dimension. We estimate the dimension using the “blackbox” technique. The resulting scale offers a cross-nationally comparable interval-level measure of a party’s social left/right ideological position.